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Scientifically known by the term of "Fungi", fungi are organisms present in many species, over one hundred thousand if we also consider the microscopic species. The attention that is generally paid to mushrooms is mainly linked to their edibility. In fact, these organisms are an essential component within ecosystems. For example, some varieties of fungi can interact with plants, creating sophisticated symbiotic relationships. These are real collaborations that are of crucial importance for the good health of the forests. There are also some types of fungi capable of feeding on the decaying organic substance, transforming it into humus, the richest substrate of soil substances.
The kingdom of mushrooms it is a complex kingdom, of which there is still much to discover. In the range of macroscopic fungi, i.e. those visible to the naked eye, some are edible, others poisonous and, among these, some deadly. In this article, we will focus specifically on yellow mushrooms.
Yellow mushrooms: habitat
Not all mushroom species grow and develop in the same place. The place where a particular species of mushroom matures is called habitat. In general, they are particularly favorable to i soils of dark color present in the woods of temperate zones, soils that are characterized by a certain level of humidity. In these habitats, thousands of macromycetes bear fruit in the summer and autumn months, including numerous species of yellow mushrooms.
The range of yellow mushrooms includes both specimens of edible mushrooms and specimens of toxic mushrooms. Let's find out some of them.
Edible yellow mushrooms: list, appearance and photos
Commonly known as chanterelle, cockerel, cockerel or chanterelle, Cantharellus Cibarius is one of the best known and most appreciated mushrooms. It has irregular and jagged edges of the hat, a feature that vaguely gives them the appearance of a cockscomb. Hence the other names by which the variety is known.
For its development, Cantharellus Cibarius needs moist, humus-rich and preferably acid soils. It grows between summer and autumn, in numerous specimens arranged in a circle or in groups, in deciduous and coniferous woods. The Cantharellus Cibarius it can be dried and frozen but it is preferable to proceed with an initial blanching to avoid that the taste remains slightly bitter. It can be used in many recipes, even in the fried version, but it is often preserved in oil or vinegar.
Very common but with an unpleasant taste, Amanita citrina results of poor quality from a gastronomic point of view. It has the surface with white warts arranged in concentric circles, sometimes missing. There is a tendency to confuse the fungus against other types of deadly amanite. For these reasons, the consumption of this species is not recommended. Amanita citrina grows in summer-autumn and is quite frequent in coniferous and broad-leaved woods.
Variety of mushroom quite widespread in holm oaks, which is characterized not only by the yellow or chrome-yellow cap, but also by its small or just medium size. Features a cylindrical or slightly enlarged stem towards the base, with equal gills, of an intense yellow color when ripe. It has a sweet taste and an initially light smell but acidulous when ripe and, according to some experts, similar to that of pickles. The mushroom is edible after cooking.
Poisonous yellow mushrooms: list, appearance and photos
Mushroom well known in Anglo-Saxon countries. Stemless, it grows on the trunks of the most varied broad-leaved trees. The individual hats are often indistinguishable as they grow superimposed on each other, in close contact. Its presence is always bad for the trees, which are destined to fall within a few years. The mushroom grows between summer and autumn. It is an inedible species due to its bitter taste and woody texture.
We are faced with a mushroom with a variable hair from 6 to 11 cm, first convex then open. The cuticle appears viscous and shiny, while the gills are thick and white. The budded Amanita grows in spring-summer and in some circumstances even in autumn, on sandy or calcareous soils in coniferous and deciduous forests.
The variety has long been considered an edible mushroom. However, starting from the 1960s, a slight non-constant toxicity was found, which resulted in some cases of mild poisoning, especially following simple burns. For this reason, experts have called it a "species not tolerated by certain people". Therefore, its consumption is not recommended, especially since the fungus is easily confused with the dangerous one Amanita pantherina.
Also known as phalloid amanita or greenish moth, Amanita phalloides is a deadly basidiomycete fungus. It is the most dangerous fungus found in nature for two main reasons. In fact, Amanita phalloides is characterized by extremely high toxicity. Furthermore, its remarkable polymorphism makes the mushroom resemble many species.
The poisoning resulting from Amanita phalloides has a fatal outcome on most occasions. But even in the event that the poisoned person survives, he is forced to undergo the liver transplant and / or dialysis. The first symptoms of poisoning appear only 6-12 hours after consuming the mushroom. In some cases, the signs of poisoning may instead occur up to 40 hours after taking. Amanita phalloides grows in summer-autumn, especially under oaks and chestnut trees in leafy woods, but also on tree-lined banks, preferring broad-leaved trees.
Usually small in size, yellow-sulfur, often slightly darker in the center with a color tending to ocher. It grows under conifers and in deciduous forests in the mountains, from summer until late autumn, often in small groups of three or four specimens. The repellent smell and the disgusting taste of the mushroom should already be two reasons enough to demotivate even the most inexperienced harvesters.
Yellow mushrooms in pots
The ideal place to grow mushrooms indoors, including the yellow mushroom variety, is a basement, a garage or even an open place sheltered from the sun and wind, with a temperature that remains around 20 degrees. To encourage the growth of fungi, it is also important to always keep the environment in which they grow moist and fresh.
The pot-container must be filled with a substrate suitable for growth and with a good quality soil that is not excessively acidic, up to about five centimeters from the edge. We then move on to watering, leaving it to rest for about ten days.
In the next step, it is necessary bury in the substrate, at a depth of about 5 centimeters, the mycelia of the fungus. The soil must then be watered regularly.
After a couple of weeks, the first mushrooms generally begin to appear. At this point, it is necessary to continue watering regularly until harvest time.